After the separation of East Bengal from India in 1947 the people of Rajshahi region was deprived of medical education and healthcare facilities. In 1949 some renowned persons of civil society and political persons involved in administration took initiative to establish a private medical school in Rajshahi city. Initially they launched LMF diploma course under State Medical Faculty Dhaka. 80 students were admitted in first batch.
In 1954 erstwhile Pakistan government converted it to government medical college. In 1958, it was launched as a complete college. It is the first medical college in northern part of Bangladesh. First head of department of Anatomy and Physiology were respectively Lieutenant Colonel Gias Uddin Ahmed who was first principal of this college and Professor Dr. Nayeb Ali.
There were 43 students in first batch including 2 female students and only 5 college staffs. The college and hospital premises are set up on 90 acres of land. The three storied 530 bed hospital was built in 1965 which included medicine, surgery and gynaecology-obstetrics Department.
This hospital premises stands on 60 acres of land which was agricultural farm before. 20 bed Infectious disease hospital, leprosy control centre and 150 bed Sadar hospital were affiliated with this hospital. Henceforth, Sadar hospital was converted to dental unit. At present MBBS, BDS and postgraduate course on different subjects are running in this college. BDS course was launched on 1992 and postgraduate course on 1998. General Medical Council of Great Britain recognized this medical college on 1 July 1992. Many doctors and students of this college participated in independence war of Bangladesh in 1971. A Shahid Minar was built in front of administrative building in 1974.